CURE invited Diane Gambill, PhD, a CURE advisory board member, to share her thoughts on advancements in blood cancers highlighted at the 2014 annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Several years ago, I heard the early results of a new drug being studied in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The drug (PCI-32765, an inhibitor of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase) generated a lot of excitement, but might not have made it to the clinic.
Like the stories behind Viagra and penicillin, the development of PCI-32765 is a classic example of scientists developing a compound for one thing and finding out, almost by accident, that it might be useful for something else. PCI-32765 was developed by a company called Celera engaged in the Human Genome Project as a tool to help find new drugs – not as a potential new drug itself, but the head of Celera resigned after the 2006 completion of sequencing the human genome and progress on their new drug portfolio ground to a halt.
In 2007, Pharmacyclics acquired the intellectual property of Celera including PCI-32765, what was to later become “Imbruvica.” PCI-32765 was not among the acquired compounds that was initially pursued; however, it took less than seven years for Imbruvica to enter the clinic for treatment of MCL (2013), and in February 2014, the FDA granted accelerated approval of Imbruvica for patients with previously treated CLL based on a small phase 2 trial that showed an impressive response rate in 48 heavily pretreated patients [NEJM 2013;369:32).
To gain full approval from the FDA, these results need to be confirmed and shown to improve long-term outcomes in phase 3 trials. Seven trials are underway and the preliminary findings of one of them (a trial called RESONATE) were announced at the 2014 annual meeting of the American Society for Clinical Oncology.
The RESONATE trial compared Imbruvica to Arzerra (ofatumumab), another treatment for CLL. Patients with CLL that had relapsed following response to prior treatment or was refractory to treatment were randomized to daily oral Imbruvica or 12 doses of intravenous Arzerra. The goal of the trial was to determine if the 195 patients treated with Imbruvica had longer progression-free survival (PFS) than the 196 patients treated with Arzerra. The trial included patients with poor prognostic characteristics such as bulky disease (about half of the patients) and a third of patients had chromosome 17p deletions.
The majority (86 percent) of patients on the Imbruvica regimen remain on therapy while all but one of the Arzerra patients had completed therapy. Of note, patients who progressed on Arzerra were allowed to cross over to the Imbruvica arm as of August 2013.
The overall response rate was substantially higher for Imbruvica (48 percent) than for Arzerra (4 percent), and the gap was even larger if patients who had a partial response with lymphocytosis were included (63 percent vs. 4 percent). This is consistent with the phase 2 results.